26.9.15

Pileuleuyan (English Translation)


Pileuleuyan (Till we meet again)

Hayu batur, hayu batur (come on dear fellow, come on dear fellow)
Urang kumpul sarerea ( let's  gather together)
Hayu batur, hayu batur (come on dear fellow, come on dear fellow)
Urang sosonoan heula (let's celebrate this togetherness first)

Pileuleuyan pileuleuyan (till we meet again, till we meet again)
Sapu nyere pegat simpang (just like broomsticks torn apart)
Pileuleuyan pileuleuyan (till we meet again, till we meet again)
Paturay patepang deui (separated then united again)

Amit mundur, amit mundur (please give me permission to leave)
Amit ka jalma nu rea ( goodbye to all the people)
Amit mundur, amit mundur (please give me permission to leave)
Da kuring arek ngumbara (because I am going to explore the world)

CMIIW

14.4.15

Coffee Cup #47: Tentang Berbagi Ilmu (di negeri orang)

Kamu-kamu pastinya menyadari bahwa setiap negara memiliki banyak rahasia. Rahasia-rahasia ini bisa berarti hal yang sangat berharga dan sangat bermanfaat yang tak ingin mereka bagi, atau bisa jadi sesuatu yang buruk yang mereka lakukan pada negara-negara lain. Ini realita. Sebagai seseorang yang mendulang ilmu di negeri orang, kita tidak bisa menutup mata terhadap persaingan antar negara dan bangsa di seluruh dunia. Sekalipun kita mencoba ber-husnudzon dan bersyukur atas kesempatan belajar lebih banyak ini, tidak mudah menghapus kecurigaan bahwa yang dapat kita gali belum seluruhnya. Not even close. Bahkan seringkali curiga siapa kah yang diuntungkan jika kita meneliti sesuatu?

Kita diperintahkan untuk menjadi seorang Ulil Albab, yang mengupas ilmu selapis demi selapis hingga ke intinya. Wajar, dengan begitu pesatnya ilmu pengetahuan, waktu kita terasa tak cukup untuk menggali ilmu. Tahukah kamu bahwa dalam hal belajar juga diperlukan tawakal? Tanpa karunia-Nya, kita bisa jadi mempelajari hal yang salah. Menghabiskan waktu berjam-jam untuk mempelajari sesuatu yang sia-sia, atau malah mempelajari sesuatu yang merugikan diri kita sendiri. Itu pula mengapa dalam doa sebelum belajar kita meminta agar yang kita pelajari ini menjadi sesuatu yang bermanfaat, untuk kita, keluarga kita, untuk segenap umat manusia, dan bukannya menjadi sesuatu yang merugikan. Ingatkah kisah tentang Einstein dan Bom Hirosima-Nagasaki? Semoga kita terhindar dari tanggung jawab semacam itu.

Bekerja keras itu penting, namun doa dan tawakal paling utama. Bismillahi tawakaltu 'alallahi laa haula wa laa quwata illa billah..


24.3.15

I'm not proud of being able to stay tune all night long to do assignment. I'll be proud if I can do Qiyamul Lail instead.

15.3.15

Coffee Cup #46: Tergesa-Gesa

Rasûlullâh Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam bersabda :
إِنَّمَا الْعِلْمُ بِالتَّعَلُّمِ وَإِنَّمَا الْحُلُمَ بِالتَّحَلُّمِ وَمَنْ يَتَحَرَّ الْخَيْرَ يُعْطِهِ وَمَنْ يَتَوَقَّ الشَّرَّ يُوقَهُ

Sesungguhnya ilmu didapatkan dengan belajar dan sesungguhnya hilm (kesabaran dan ketenangan) didapatkan dengan melatihnya. Barangsiapa yang berusaha untuk mendapatkan kebaikan, maka Allâh akan memberikannya. Barangsiapa yang berusaha untuk menghindari keburukan, niscaya akan terhindar darinya.[19] 

[19]. HR Ath-Thabrani di dalam al-Mu’jamul Kabîr no. 1763 dan al-Awsath no. 2663 dan yang lainnya. Syaikh al-Albâni t mengatakan bahwa hadits ini hasan di ash-Shahîhah no. 342.

sumber: http://almanhaj.or.id/content/3673/slash/0/tergesa-gesa-penyakit-manusia/
 
Tergesa-gesa itu sifat dasar manusia. Demikian yang pernah diajarkan kepada saya di sekolah dulu. Dalilnya ada di dalam al-Qur'an surat Al-Isra (7): 11. Silakan dicek... potongan awal ayat tersebut juga cukup menarik (tapi tidak relevan untuk tulisan ini).

Tergesa-gesa bisa saja dilandasi motivasi yang cukup mulia. Ingin segera menjadi orang lebih baik, ingin segera membantu orang lain, ingin segera bisa memberi, ingin perkerjaan segera selesai dengan baik. Namun bagaimana pun, tergesa-gesa menghasilkan sesuatu yang prematur, dan membuahkan penyesalan. Ingatkah cerita kepompong yang digunting dalam rangka membantu kupu-kupu keluar, ternyata malah membuat sang kupu-kupu prematur? Mengingatnya saja saya ngilu.

Untuk menyembuhkan sifat ini, sesuai kutipan hadist di atas, adalah dengan melatihnya. Latihan sendiri butuh niat yang kuat dan kesabaran, bukan? Like a snowball.

Mari kita berlatih. Tiada daya dan upaya melainkan dari-Nya.

5.3.15

Coffee Cup #45: Beyond Capability

Do you know why our gratest ancestor really fond of Qiyamul Lail? Because they were dealing with something beyond their capability. They were humble enough to "say" that they were weak, not smart enough, not strong enough for many task that was assigned to them. But they were actually smart enough to know that the One who can give the strength and ability will answer the prayer during last part of the night while other people were sleeping.

Each day you will find that the challenges are nuts. Eventually you will learn that you can only survive if you follow the path of our wiser ancestor.


3.3.15

Coffee Cup #44: The Way You Address People

Being social is a thing. Especially for you who claim yourself as introvert. An introvert wont easily change into an extrovert. So I think this text is still relevant as long as we live.

Naturally people like to be liked. And the wisest advice would say: you, at first, should like yourself. Your way to appreciate yourself is shown on how you address people around you.

In certain culture, there are people who seems like they would never ever ever greet you. That is not because of their dislike (hardly), but more likely because of (a) your own shyness, (b) their own shyness, (c) you don't know each other it would be creepy, and (d) unimaginable situation. But there is a fact that you should keep in mind: everyone is lonely. Ex group mate, ex class mate, even people who rarely talk to you during your previous encounter naturally likes to be greeted.

It really wont hurt that bad when they ignore your greetings. Probably they (a) don't hear you, (b) simply don't remember you and that's expected (come on!), (c) are drown in serious thought, or (d) in a hurry. What you have to do just use your courage.

As molsem we are also taught to spread salaam. Not only to people we know but also them who we face on the street. The situation in urban area probably makes greeting to stranger a bit strange, but have you ever randomly greeted in the street with smile and nice words? Simply a greeting, without nosy question or following conversation and of course without any effort to rob you. That kind of greeting could really make your day.

I know that beyond school you should have already mastered at least this greeting part of 'socializing' course. The fact is: not few adults in my circles struggle with this problem. No worries. Let's try fellas!

PS. I think I should post this to my junior high school students as well.

15.2.15

Coffee Cup #43: Sehat

Salah satu karunia yang tak ternilai harganya adalah kesehatan, demikian menurut beberapa buku kesuksesan yang mungkin sering kita baca. Itulah sebabnya makanan dan minuman kesehatan menjadi bisnis yang tak pernah mati. Menjadi member di pusat kebugaran, konsultasi pengaturan pola makan, hingga medical check up secara berkala kini telah menjadi tren gaya hidup "Kuda Kelas Satu".

Namun, terkadang kita lupa mengenali penyakit yang paling berbahaya: Penyakit Hati. Penyakit hati dapat mengikis pahala amal sholeh yang kita kerjakan dengan susah payah, dan menjadi penghalang bagi kita untuk menerima yang Haq.

Demikian beberapa penyakit hati yang disebutkan dalam Al-Qur'an:

SOMBONG
Merasa bangga dengan yang diberikan Allah, memamerkan apa yang telah dicapai. Hal ini bisa berbentuk 'Keluhan' di medsos seperti "Capek banget baru beres meeting nih dengan Direktur. Semoga tim kita lebih semangat ya bulan ini." yang mengimplikasikan kita punya jabatan tinggi di perusahaan. Jika kamu sudah merasa rendah hati cek juga: apakah kamu bisa menerima masukan dan merubah diri atas nasihat orang lain, ataukah masih gengsi? Sombong disebutkan dalam QS Al Israa ayat 37; Luqman ayat 18; dan Al-Mukmin ayat 76.

SUKA BERDUSTA
"Cukuplah seseorang dianggap pendusta bila ia selalu membicarakan segala sesuatu yang ia dengar." (HR Muslim 1/10). Dusta menandakan bahwa seseorang itu tidak takut kepada Allah SWT. Seorang pendusta tidak akan pernah dapat meriwayatkan hadist. Seorang pendusta tidak dapat memberikan kesaksian. Dusta adalah ciri dari munafiq.

UJUB
Ujub adalah merasa kagum pada diri sendiri. Termasuk merasa cukup sholeh dan berderajat tinggi di hadapan Allah. Tanda-tanda ujub (kagum pada diri sendiri):
1. Merasa heran ketika doanya tidak dikabulkan Allah.
2. Ketika orang yang mengganggunya ditimpa musibah, ia menganggapnya sebagai karomahnya.

RIYA
Ciri-ciri riya;
1. Di hadapan orang ia rajin.
2. Ketika sendiri ia malas.
3. Selalu ingin dipuji dalam setiap keadaan.
"Hai orang-orang yang beriman, janganlah kamu menghilangkan (pahala) sedekahmu dengan menyebut-nyebutnya dan menyakiti, seperti orang yang menafkahkan hartanya karena riya kepada manusia." QS Al-Baqoroh ayat 264

BAKHIL/KIKIR
"Adapun orang yang bakhil dan merasa dirinya cukup serta mendustakan pahala terbaik, maka kelak Kami akan menyiapkan baginya jalan yg sukar. Dan hartanya tidak bermanfaat baginya apabila ia telah binasa." QS Al-Lail ayat 8-11

IRI dan DENGKI
"Dan janganlah kamu iri hati terhadap apa yang dikaruniakan Allah kepada sebahagian kamu lebih banyak dari sebahagian yang lain..." QS An-Nisaa ayat 32
Cara mengobati iri adalah dengan mendoakan agar orang yang diberikan kelebihan tersebut mendapatkann barokah.

OBAT untuk PENYAKIT HATI dijelaskan dalam QS Al-Furqon ayat 63-75 (dalam karakteristik seorang ibadurrahman) dan sebagiannya disebutkan dalam lagu Tombo Ati yang terkenal. Coba apa saja dalam lagu itu?
1. Baca Qur'an dan maknanya. Tak hanya terjemahnya, namun juga penjelasan dalam berbagai sumber.
2. Mendirikan shalat malam.
3. Berkumpul dengan orang shaleh.
4. Perbanyaklah berpuasa.
5. Dzikir malam perpanjanglah.

Wallahu'alam
Bismillahi tawakalna

Sumber: Imam Al-Ghazali - Bahaya Penyakit Hati, Karakteristik Ibadurrahman (rizkamaulan.blogspot.com), anisfatayati.blogspot.com, Al-Qur'anul kariim.

5.2.15

“Katakanlah: “Apakah akan Kami beritahukan kepadamu tentang orang-orang yang paling merugi perbuatannya?” Yaitu orang-orang yang telah sia-sia perbuatannya dalam kehidupan dunia ini, sedangkan mereka menyangka bahwa mereka berbuat sebaik-baiknya.” (QS Al Kahfi 103-104)

1.2.15

Coffee Cup #42: Tend To

Probably because nowadays we are able to store anything outside our head (read and write in books, hardisk, dvds); we tend to easily forget many things.

Really.

29.1.15

Coffee Cup #41: Tentang Rizqi

Awalnya akan saya beri judul "Tentang Hoki", tapi, dikemanakan iman yang ada di dalam hati ini bila saya malah meyakini apa-apa yang saya dapatkan ini karena keberuntungan semata.

"Kok kamu beruntung terus sih.."
"Dapet doorprize lagi? Kamu mah juragan doorprize ih"
"Pas banget ya, untung aja."

Banyak sekali peristiwa yang jika bukan karena rahmat-Nya saya tidak mungkin berhasil. Terlambat ujian hingga satu jam lamanya dan masih diberi A (saya sujud syukur sungguh). Tiba-tiba deadline sidang maju seminggu namun kemudian dosennya baik hati semua dan karya saya terpilih untuk dipamerkan. Jerawatan parah yang sembuh tepat di hari penting (penting!). Dapat tiket gratis saat uang tinggal selembar. Salah hari saat wawancara beasiswa LPDP, namun kini di sinilah saya berada: melanjutkan pendidikan.

Alhamdulillahirabbil'alamin...

Pasalnya, seringkali saya maluuuuu sekali karena belum merasa cukup beramal untuk mendapatkan A B C D dan E. (Berarti cukup amal untuk dapat F? Haha)

Tidak bisa saya menyombong mengatakan ini karena kemampuan saya. No.

Sungguh benar perkataan 'Laa Haula Wa Laa Quwata Illa Billah'. Karena untuk bisa beramal, untuk bisa menyadari karunia Allah, dan untuk bisa bersyukur, semuanya pemberian Dia juga.

Ya Rabb, ajarilah kami untuk pandai bersyukur.

21.1.15

Coffee Cup #40: Allah Maha Tahu

Wahai gadis-gadis muslimah yang menjaga dirinya. Tulisan ini untukmu, yang tengah berusaha dengan gagah berani menutup setiap cerita yang serba mungkin.

Manusia sungguh terbatas dalam banyak hal. Kita hanya bisa maklum, ketika mereka sembarangan memutuskan dan seenaknya berkisah tentangmu. Hanya teman sejati (yang amat sedikit jumlahnya) yang tahu kapan harus menutup mulutnya dan menutup telinganya. Yang lain, usah kau hiraukan. Ada Dia.

Tak ada yang benar-benar tahu apa yang ada di dalam hati, kecuali Dia. Dan tak perlu pusing. Ketika kau memiliki doa yang sulit untuk dituturkan, Ia tahu. Ketika kau memiliki curhatan yang ingin dicurahkan, Ia tahu. Ketika kau membutuhkan penjagaan, Dia menjagamu. Ketika ada yang melukai, Dia yang memberi penghiburan.

Juga tak perlu khawatir bila orang-orang tak seindah yang mereka citrakan. Jagalah dirimu untuk selalu ihsan. Bila mereka menampakan sesuatu yang bukan sebenarnya, sesungguhnya mereka yang paling dirugikan.

Maka ingatlah selalu Allah Maha Tahu. Allah melihatmu mendengarmu di manapun. Tak perlu bicara pun, Ia sudah tahu...

Tetap jagalah dirimu. Semoga Allah senantiasa menjagamu.

20.1.15

Coffee Cup #39: Jauh

Bukan sekali atau dua kali saja kita mengalami kejadian yang sama. Dan bukan pula berarti de javu, karena kita yakin hal itu pernah terjadi. Mungkin itu yang namanya sejarah yang berulang.

Kemarin hari yang amat bersejarah. Saya pergi mengunjungi para eyang di kota cantik Yogyakarta. Saudara-saudara tentu saja menawarkan untuk tur keliling kota: ke alun-alun, monumen, benteng-benteng, dan belanja oleh-oleh. Tapi liburan kali ini saya hanya ingin menemani eyang.

Jarang-jarang bisa berlama-lama menemani Eyang Sri ngobrol dan mengomentari segala yang ada di TV. Atau bermonolog dengan Eyang Putri dan membacakan tilawah. Atau duduk bersama Eyang Lasno merumpikan si Mbok dan para cucu. Jarang-jarang pula rasanya saya bisa merasa begitu rindu, meskipun telah bertemu.

Tiba-tiba teringat masa kecil piknik bersama dan pengalaman jatuh ke kolam. Haha. Juga tur pribadi ke landasan udara di bandara Husein bersama almarhum Eyang Burhan. Yang unik, kenangan berfoto di teras berkeramik kuning (persis keramik di teras perpustakaan Sipil ITB) yang entah di mana fotonya kini berada. Kenangan ini terasa paling menyentuh. Mengingatkan saya akan waktu yang terus berlalu. Rasanya masa itu begitu jauh. Begitu lama.

Dan saya ingat pernah merasa begini, beberapa waktu lalu. Di kondisi serupa.
Dia memampukanmu untuk lupa dan ingat, karena sayang. Jadi jangan khawatir. Ingatlah yang harus diingat, lupakan yang harus dilupa.

PS: grab your camera, grab your pencil.

26.12.14

Coffee Cup #38: How can I not

I feel grateful... how can I not?

Many things happen for reasons. Many thing in this world and so in my life. I am in a process of learning to trust Him faithfully and keep positive with His plan. Day to day I found that His plan is really, truly beautiful.

By the way this blog is set in a public mode. So I expect there are readers like you who probably wonder how can I say His plan is beautiful? I assure you I'm not fabulously wealthy at the moment. Neither I have reached a great achievement nor found my true love. Not yet. And I'm not completely free of problems. The thing is I soon realize that life is the messy bit. It is the kind of mess which can shape you from raw stone; crave you, rub you, even burn you, and then polish you into the best gem.

I believe there's balance in life. In every goodbye there's a new hello. Sometimes win, sometimes lose. Sometimes you are lost, sometimes you are found. Sometimes you have to give before you get. Sometimes you think you are 'sacrificing' something, but actually you are making yourself richer and better.

Although there are several things that makes me sad till today, I feel I turn up being a better person. That's a good thing. This whole year (accumulated) is a super awesome one. I can't stop feeling thankful. I got a scholarship. l can study abroad. l have open and caring classmates. l found new family in Brisbane. I can perform angklung with cool mates. l had casual works better than I can imagine and get better grades than I thought I deserve. I have opportunity to do tahfidz and it was really great this year. I have beautiful friendships. I can enjoy summer with my family. And countless things which I can only keep for myself at the moment.

I have no reason to be ungrateful. Alhamdulillah.

5.9.14

TEras #11: Formalism

A SUMMARY

This is a flash visit to architectural theory. Because I was really intrigued by a statement toward particular design in the studio: “This is obviously just a form making. And this is wrong.” Curious.
And the thing is, the author of a resource in this visit is actually the Head of School in UQ.

What is Formalism? 
The definition is vary, because there’s no agreement upon this subject.

  1. K. Michael Hays: “The comparative absence of historical concerns in favor of attention to the autonomous architectural objects and its formal operations
  2. Russian Formalism: anti-realist, denying that morality or philosophy should be the concern of literature.
  3. Germany Formalism: their aesthetic emerged antagonistically in response to classical theories of imitation and representation in the arts. Form was no longer thought of as an expression of content but as co-existing with the idea. à Art aim new reality.
  4. Joseph Kosuth: “Art is abstract in relationship to cultural meanings, in the way that the noises we utter called words are meaningful only in relation to a linguistic system, not in relation to the world.”
  5. Perez-Gomez: “For more than two centuries, architects, critics, and theoreticians have been arguing functionalist and formalist positions, opposing art to social interest and ethic to poetic expressions.
  6. Mieke Bal: “Aesthetics is also a context, which is why formalism necessary fails.”
  7. Formalism has been used to promote, provoke, or dismiss one art or architectural practice over another, not so much on aesthetic grounds as on ethical or moral differences. (Kaji-O'Grady, 2012)
  8. Clement Greenberg: introducing “Flatness”, which then also influenced the advent of ‘minimalism’ ‘pop’ and ‘novelty art’, and also influenced a shift of optical formalism in abstract painting to phenomenological formalism.

In Architecture:

  1. Viollet-le-Duc: good form was concieved as the outcome of the rational procedure of a careful consideration of function and structure.
  2. Otto Wagner: shaping of form (Formgebung) should be consistent with its purpose and material. à well this is what we know as honesty which is really famous related with Modern architecture.
  3. Mies van der Rohe: “We know no forms, only building problems. Form is not the goal but the result of our work..”
  4. Viollet-le-Duc: a rational design method may not always result in a beautiful and satisfying formal outcome, buat a beautiful building is necessarily rational.
  5. Formalist ambitions in the practice of architecture are, consequently, denied, or dismissed as socially irresponsible, culturally irrelevant, solipsistic, and arbitrary. (Kaji-O'Grady, 2012)
  6. Jacques Derida: Architecture must have meaning, it must present it and through it signify. The signifying or symbolical value of this meaning must direct the structure and syntax, the form and function of architecture. It must direct from outside, according to a principle (arche), a foundmental foundation, a trancendence or finality (telos) whose locations are not themselves architectural. The experience of meaning must be dwelling.
  7. Eissenman: Post-functionalism. Architectural autonomy (which is reminds me about Libeskind’s idea about architect’s signature) consist two part: (1) the search of the way to make the elements of architecture the wall, the beam, the column self-referential; (2) the development of the process of making that could produce self-reference without referring to the formal conventions of modernism.
  8. Thomas Mical: Surrealism and Architecture (2005), that modernist architecture was essentially involved in formlessness. “Architecture must reamain void to function and incomplete to produce effects, because architecture can only be completed in the spatial immersion of the subject.”
  9. Bataille: “Forms have become more and more static, more and more dominant”. Architecture is concerned with systematic aith the regulation of the plan, and with inspiring fear and control as a mechanism for social order.  Then architecture and formlessness are oppositional categories.
  10. Blur Building: Architecture of nothing. Obfucates visuality. Pursue non-form or temporary form through making their architecture from material from each situation – the human subject, climate, the object, and territory. (this is differennt from formlessness)
  11. Robert Morris: “What art now has in its hands is mutable stuff which need not arrive at the point of being finalized with respect to either time or space.”
  12. Software-generated architecture à neologism ‘performalism’. Works of Greg Lunn, Gehry, Eisenman, Open source, Reiser & Umemoto, etc. “Digital architecture’s formalism, realized through a multidimensional use of performance, offers a field of action by far wider than mere formalism, actually defining new needs and a new inessential concept of subjectivity.” (Grobman and Neuman, 2008 as cited in (Kaji-O'Grady, 2012))
  13. Frei Otto: finding form through experiments intended to arrive at the optimization of materials and structure.
  14. Performalism: (1) curvilinear and complex form Cartesian geometries. (2) some of which are not yet contructable, some are considered ‘ugly’ and formless by architects that remained commited to the orthogonal forms of modernism.
  15. Catherine Ingraham: computatuional naturalism perpetuates a classical formalism in which programme, inhabitant, and occupant are cast aside from form-making.


In conclussions: formalism is neither a dead argument nor a fixed moment in history but it constantly reworked in light of new theories and practices. Formalist practice as a means for achieving some expression of resistance to the instrumentalism of capitalist society. (Kaji-O'Grady, 2012)

Reference:


2.9.14

Pada dasarnya, kaum yang mementingkan duniawi adalah bodoh, ceroboh, dan dangkal pikirannya. (Yahya: 2004)

28.8.14

That all readings, which come from human, should be faced critically as it can't be pure of personal interest.

26.8.14

TEras #10: Paul Oskar Kristeller, about history of the Fine Art system

OK so this is what I got from Kristeller. I would say that somehow I enjoy reading his works. It makes me want to read other writings in triple A, including Ranciere, which is a good thing, absolutely.

Who is Kristeller?

Paul Oskar Kristeller (May 22, 1905 in Berlin – June 7, 1999 in New YorkUSA) was an important scholar of Renaissance humanism. He was awarded the Haskins Medal in 1992. He was last active as Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at Columbia University in New York, where he mentored both Irving Louis Horowitz and A. James Gregor. (wiki)

His influence:

The emphasis of Kristeller's research was on the philosophy of Renaissance humanism. He is the author of important studies on Marsilio FicinoPietro Pomponazzi and Giambattista Vico.An especially important achievement is his Iter Italicum (the title recalls Iter Alemannicum and other works of Martin Gerbert), a large work describing numerous uncatalogued manuscripts. After decades of neglect, Kristeller's lengthy, erudite essay of the early 1950s, "The Modern System of the Arts", in Journal of the History of Ideas, proved to be an influential, much reprinted classic reading in Philosophy of Art. (wiki)

Kristeller tells us that in the history of ‘fine arts’ before ‘modern age’ or 18th century, actually paintings rarely mentioned. Fine arts, long time ago, includes poetry, rhetoric, music, sculpture, astronomy, medicine, mathematics, etc. It even includes matters that we classify as science.  Before renaissance Paintings is classify as the act of imitation, as well as sculpture.
Considering previous reading about Kant and Hume, the definition of ‘beauty’ in ancient Greek, either, is not only limited to physical beauty but also related with beautiful habits, personal act, etc.

16th century - Renaissance

·         Renaissance writers want their paintings to be recognized as liberal art. To enhance the social and prestige of paintings and other visual art to be as good as poetry, rhetoric, and music.
·         Leonardo Da Vinci tried to emphasize a relationship of painting and mathematic and anatomy.
·         1563 in Florence, painters, sculptors, and architects builds Academy of Art, in influence of Vasari[1]. The curriculum includes anatomy and mathematics.

16th to 18th century                                                                                       

·         Writings show comparative between paintings and poetry.
·         1546 – Benedetto Varchii compare paintings and sculpture
·         Leonardo’s Paragone which argues for the superiority of paintings from poetry, music, and sculpture.  (Kristeller, 1951-2)
·         The definition of beauty in Renaissance still borrowing ancient talk (personal beauty and so on).[2]
·         The writers in this century didn’t make attempt to separate fine arts with science.[3]

17th century

·         Cultural leadership moved from Italy to French
·         Painting becomes more flourish
·         1635 Academie Francaise, French language, poetry, literature,
·         1648 Academie royale de Painture et de Sculpture
·         More academies for music, architecture, dance, three visual arts, and then academy of sciences which have no relation to fine arts.
·         There are development in theoretical and critical literature of visual art in particular.[4]
·         The parallel between poetry and painting important to the writers. The terms Beaux Art which seems related with visual arts alone, actually related with music and poetry as well.[5]
·         In this century there is a rise of emancipation of the natural science.[6] After Galileo and Descrates works have been completed. Academies des Science[7] and Royal Societies became active.
·         Querelle des Anciens et Modernes. Two points: (1) various field of human endeavor leads to various classification of knowledge and culture, (2) there are two kinds of fields: mathematical basis and talent-critique basis.[8] Separation between science and art.
·         Music mentioned in the last part of science, in Charles Perrault’s book.[9]

18th century - French

·         Interest in music and visual art increased
·         Beauty by J.P. de Crousaz (1714) is an important attempt to divide beauty definition from goodness.
·         Abbe Dubos (1719): analogies between painting and poetries and the difference between them without any interest in judging which one more prestigious. First writing about poetry and painting from the amateurs, which states that the best judgment comes from the amateur.[10]
·         Dubos includes poetry in Beaux Art
·         Abbe Batteux (1746): a system of fine arts. He separates fine arts which have pleasures to their end, from mechanical arts. Fine arts includes music, poetry, painting, sculpture, and dance. There’s a third group who combine pleasure and usefulness, which includes: eloquence, and architecture.
·         Jean de Ront d’Alembert[11] in Discourse Preliminaire divide knowledge into: Philosophy (grammar, eloquence, history, natural science), and those cognition which consist an imitation (painting, sculpture, architecture, poetry, music).[12]
·         Encyclopédie[13]
·         Larcombe portable dictionary of Fine Art covers: architecture, sculpture, engraving, painting, poetry, and music.

18th century - England

·         Henry Pecham[14]: treatrise of painting, influenced by Renaissance.
·         After Querelle influence spread from French, William Wotton: tried to cover systematically all human art and activities.[15]
·         History of The Wars of Ancients and Moderns (1705), works in England which is related with Querelle.
·         Anthony, Earl of Shaftesbury: considered as founder of modern aesthetics. He did not make distinction between aesthetic and moral beauty. And his moral sense still include both ethical and aesthetic objects. He writes about imagination… the pleasure of imagination has to be found in the works such as architecture, sculpture, painting, poetry, music, gardening,
·         After Shaftesbury: distinction between ethic and aesthetic.
·         The necessary art, and the art of elegance. (James Harris)[16]

18th century - Germany

·         Baumgarten: gives definition of term aesthetic: is the theory of sensuous knowledge, which is a counterpart of logic as a theory of intellectual knowledge, firstly related to poetry and rhetoric, and later gives the theory to all arts including music and visual art.
·         Georg Friedrich Meier: limit the theory only to literature (?)
·         Laokoon (1766): put an end to the parallel between painting and sculpture.
·         Mendelsshon: demands fine art (painting, sculpture, music, dance, architecture) and belles letters (poetry, eloquence) reduced to same common principle better than imitation.
·         Sulzer: General Theory of The Fine Art, covers poetry, eloquence, music, visual art.
·         Goethe: ridicules the idea of grouping all the arts altogether which very different from each other, but in the end he accept Fine Art system.
·         Herder: active contribute to classify the Fine Art.
Back to Kant as Conclussion

Kant states that he didn’t follow Baumgarten’s terminology since he does not believe in any possibility of philosophical theory of the arts. Kant gives division of Fine Arts: plastic art (sculpture, architecture, painting, and gardening), speaking art (poetry and eloquence), art of the beautiful play of sentiments (music and the art of color).[17]

References:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giorgio_Vasari, last modified on 20 July 2014 at 10:08, last accessed on 26 August 2014 at 5:52 PM.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Academy_of_Sciences, last modified on 13 August 2014 at 14:59, last accessed on 26 August 2014 at 7:13 PM
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Oskar_Kristeller,  last modified on 12 August 2014 at 02:31, last accessed on 26 August 2014 at 8:04 PM
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_le_Rond_d'Alembert, last modified on 30 July 2014 at 03:05, last accessed on 26 August 2014 at 8:21 PM
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Peacham, last modified on 20 June 2014 at 08:22, last accessed on 26 August 2014 8:48 PM





[1] 1511-1574, Italian Architect and Painters who first classify Paintings along with Sculpture and Architectural works. His writing titled “Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects” is the first encyclopedia of best art work during his time. (en.wikipedia.com)
[2] KRISTELLER, P. O. 1951-2. The Modern System of the Arts: a study in the history of aesthetics [parts 1 & 2]. Journal of the History of Ideas, 12, 13, 496-527, 17-46. p.186
[3] Ibid. p.189
[4] Ibid. p. 191
[5] Ibid. p.192
[6] Ibid. p.193
[7] Academies des Science in France, first known president is Napoleon Bonaparte, started in suggestion from Jean Baptise-Colbert with a small group of scholar who met in Kings Library. (en.wikipedia.com)
[8] KRISTELLER, P. O. 1951-2. The Modern System of the Arts: a study in the history of aesthetics [parts 1 & 2]. Journal of the History of Ideas, 12, 13, 496-527, 17-46. P.193-194
[9] Ibid. p.194
[10] Ibid. p.198
[11] D’Alembert was French mathematician, mechanician, Physicist, philosopher, and music theorist. The wave equation or D’Alembert formula is the most well-known thing related to him. (en.wikipedia.com)
[12] KRISTELLER, P. O. 1951-2. The Modern System of the Arts: a study in the history of aesthetics [parts 1 & 2]. Journal of the History of Ideas, 12, 13, 496-527, 17-46. p.202
[13] Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (English: Encyclopaedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts) was a general encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1772, with later supplements, revised editions, and translations. It was edited by Denis Diderot and, until 1759, co-edited by Jean le Rond d'Alembert. (e.wikipedia.org)
[14] Henry Peacham is the name shared by two English Renaissance writers who were father and son. The elder Henry Peacham (1546–1634) was an English curate, best known for his treatise on rhetoric titled The Garden of Eloquence first published in 1577. He lived atLeverton-in-Holland, in Lincolnshire.[1] His son, Henry Peacham (b. 1578, d. in or after 1644) was a poet and writer,[2] known today primarily for his book, The Compleat Gentleman, first printed in 1622. It is presented as a guidebook on the arts for young men of good birth. In it, he discusses what writers, poets, composers, philosophers, and artists a gentlemen should study in order to become well-educated. Because he mentions a large number of contemporary artistic figures, he is often cited as a primary source in studies of Renaissance artists.
[15] KRISTELLER, P. O. 1951-2. The Modern System of the Arts: a study in the history of aesthetics [parts 1 & 2]. Journal of the History of Ideas, 12, 13, 496-527, 17-46. p. 205
[16] Ibid. p.209.
[17] Ibid. p.224